Tuesday, 29 May 2012


Executive summary
This report has  been developed with the view of detailing the activities carried out at the water resources management  authority  lake Victoria north , Kakamega regional office , during the months of may to July 2011. It details the background information on the inception  of the organization, its vital role  in the ministry  of water  and irrigation and appraisal of key institution  that work  in tandem with the authority.
Also included in this report is detailed  write up of the actual work and experiences  gained  both at the office and during field work. further, a detailed  description of the area of specialization  and its relevance  to the management  of water resources in Kenya  has been included . the data that has been used for the report  covers the  period up to July 2011. WRMA-LVN catchment  area came into existence  in 2005 after the decentralization of water resources  management  from the ministry  to the new water institutions .The regional office  of lake Victoria north catchment area (LVNCA) is found  at Kakamega town with sub-regional  offices in kitale , Eldoret and Siaya. The catchment  area(LVNCA) extends in  latitude  from its southern border  on the equator 00°00’ to about 01°15’ and in  longitude  from 34° to 35°30’ east .the whole of the catchment  area  lies over  1000m above sea level and covers an extent  of 18378km2.
Since operationalization of WRMA  in 2005, it has established  the framework  in relation to which the  catchment  management  strategies  are being  developed , which supports  the identification of priorities  for investments . The CMSs are operationalised at the sub-catchment level by WRUAs who support the preparation of the sub-catchment management plans (SCMPs).
Regarding stakeholder involvement in water resource management, WRMA has created a conducive environment through WRUAs. In total , about  56 WRUAs has  been legally  recognized  to participate  in management  of water  resource  within  lake  Victoria  north catchment  area , another  11 WRUAs are  already operational but yet to acquire  legal status . Through WRUAs , WRMA is able  to address  water  resources  management  issues  on the ground  including equitable  allocation of water resources ,this has resulted in relation of conflicts  over  water  sharing and coexistence  among different water 
Concerning community driven resources user development  projects, an initiative  embraced  to promote community  driven investments  in micro-projects aimed  at increasing  incomes  of the targeted  communities  and reduce  poverty . Western Kenya  community  driven development and flood mitigation projects(WKCDDFMP)  is an initiative  by Kenyan  government  funded by world bank which is  promoting  community  driven investment in micro-projects .The other initiative  is the flood mitigation and implementation of floods  management  intervention described under the following components . Multi-purpose flood management, flood plain management and flood early warning.

Many individuals have contributed to the fruition of my undergraduate studies, and in extension, the attachment component. To them I owe a dept of thanks for their support, moral or otherwise – in seeing me through. First and for most, I am deeply indebted to the WRMA staff for their tireless lesson to me, both in the field and office. my sincere gratitude  is equally extednded  to DR. kibe , WRUA co-ordinator  and Carol Matere , stakeholder  relations  officer , whose advice and guidance  have been timeless. The support received from ICT officer Mr. Vincent shiveka, data analyst Mr. Dennis masika project officer Mr. Isaac mutanyi and the entire staff is immensely appreciated.
I must also thank the current staff of the centre of disaster management and humanitarian assistance at Masinde Muliro University of science and technology, for their organized supervision and mentorship during the entire period of my studies. Special thanks to DR. China for his ideas and advice during the assessment.
Finally, sincere thanks are due to my family for their support, encouragement and perseverance during the entire length of my studies.

List of abbreviations.
AGWR                                             Artificial Ground Water Recharge
ASAL                                                Arid and Semi Arid Lands
ASR                                                   Aquifer Storage and Recovery
CAAC                                                Catchment Area Advisory Committees
CBO                                                   Community Based Organizations
CEO                                                    Chief Executive Officer
CMO                                                    Catchment Management Officer
GIS                                                      Geographical Information System
GW                                                     Ground Water
I.C.T                                                      Information Computer Technology
IWRM                                                Integrated Water Resource Management
KEWI                                                 Kenya Water Institute
KFS                                                   Kenya Forestry Services
LVN                                                  Lake Victoria North
LVNCA                                            Lake Victoria North Catchment Area
MoA                                                Ministry of Agriculture
MWI                                                Ministry of Water and Irrigation
NWRMS                                         National Water Resources Management Strategy
PRSP                                               Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
IFM                                                  Integrated flood management
WRMA                                            Water Resource Management Authority
WRUAS                                           Water Resource Users Association
WSP                                                 Water Service Providers
WSTF                                               Water Services Trust FUND

The water resource management authority (WRMA) is a state corporation established in july2005 under provision of the water act 2002 of the laws of Kenya.
The authority is a non-profit generating service oriented corporate body under the ministry of water and irrigation. It is charged with the responsibility of providing leadership in the management of water resources countrywide. It is also subject to state corporations Act which guides all state corporations In Kenya.
The operations of WRMA are carried out through six regional and 25 sub-regional offices set up at river basin level and supported by catchment area advisory committees (CAAC) and resource users association created by the water act 2002.
These regional offices are developed with regard to the six catchment areas, the delineation of the six catchment areas are in accordance with the national water resource management strategy (NRWMS) and section 14 of the water act 2002. The six catchment areas are:
·         Lake Victoria North Catchment Area.
·         Lake Victoria South Catchment Area.
·         Rift Valley Catchment Area.
·         Tana River catchment Area.
·         Ewaso ng’iro North Catchment Area.

                     Organizational structure
Water resource management authority is divided into various departments from the national to regional level.
The departments include both the hydrological and management sectors, which are as follows;
        I.            Water quality monitoring department
     II.            Ground water department
   III.            Surface water department
  IV.            The enforcement office
     V.            Pollution and conservation management office
  VI.            Monitoring and evaluation office
VII.            The procurement office
VIII.            The ICT and database management office.
  IX.            The accounts department
     X.            The stake holders’ relations department

In order to attain sustainability, the authority has the following objectives;
·         To ensure equitable allocation and regulation of water use
·         Meet the economic and social development objectives through sustainable management of water resources including equitable allocation of resources.
·         To regulate and control use of water resources.
·         To implement solutions for   reconciling water supply and demand.
·         Classify the water resources within agreed management zones.
·         Determine the measures necessary to achieve the resources quality objectives.
·         To ensure that the reserve is met at all times
·         Protect water resources from pollution and mitigate the negative impacts from effluent inflow.
·         To integrate protection and conservation approach together with stakeholders.
·         To effectively protect and conserve resources within the catchment.
·         Establish and maintain monitoring network and water resource monitoring and information system.
·         Provide reliable information for decision making in water resource management.
·         Ensure that mechanism for monitoring and evaluation of CMS implementation is in place.
The powers and functions of WRMA are as follows:
·         To develop principles, guide lines and procedures for the allocation of water resources.
·         Monitor and re asses the national water resources management strategy.
·         To receive and determine application for permits for water use.
·         To monitor and enforce conditions attached to permits for water use.
·         To regulate and protect water resources quality from adverse impacts.
·         The protection and management of water catchments.
·         It helps the ministry of water and irrigation in the protection of water sheds with respect to quality and quantity.
·         Helps in the determination of charges to be imposed for the use of water from any water resource.
·         It helps in gathering and maintenance of water resources and from time to time publishes forecasts, projections and information on water resources.
·         They liase with other bodes for better regulation and management of water resources. Thee includes the following institutions;
a)      At the national level;
b)      Water resource management authority (WRMA)
c)      Water services trust fund (WSTF)
d)      Water services regulatory board (WSRB)
e)      Water appeals board
f)       At the regional level and community level
g)      Water resource users association (WRUA)
h)      Water catchment area advisory committees ( CAAC)
i)        Water services provider. (WSP)
j)        Water services board (WSB)

Below is an illustration f the institutional frame work under the water under the water act 2002, showing the functions and broad roles of the various institutions.

For  the entire period of  training  at lake Victoria north catchment area, I was exposed to the opportunities of expanding my knowledge in the field of disaster management  especially floods forecasting and mitigation , pollution control ,water resource management and water quality  monitoring  and analysis of data. And during the trio month’s period of training, I managed to acquire practical knowledge in the following areas;
·         Water quality monitoring and analysis.
·         Ground water survey.
·         Data entries in the data base.
·         Assessment of the WRUA performance
·         Abstraction survey of water resources
·         Use of ARC GIS  software to run a model on drainage analysis
·         Use of GPS tool kit to mark waypoints(GRID REFERENCES)
On the inception of my training at LVNC-WRMA, I was attached to the laboratory section where I was acquainted with knowledge of  the duties carried out ranging from how to test different parameters and analyze whether they fall in the required WHO standards to  other duties assigned which was Classifying the water resources for the purpose of determining Resource Quality Objectives for each class of water resource, Analyzing and interpreting water quality data , evaluation of reports,Analysing data relating to water quality parameters and Standardizing analytical methods.   Some of the parameters worked on are as follows:
The physical parameters;
Temperature reading is used in the calculation of various forms of alkalinity in studies of saturation and stability with respect to calcium carbonate, in the calculation of salinity and in general laboratory operations .Temperature is measured using a mercury thermometer to obtain data for process use or heat –transmition calculation.
Turbidity is caused by the presence in water of suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silts, finely divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton and other microscopic organisms. Turbidly is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted with no change in direction. This depends on a number of factors, such as the number, the size, shape, and refractive index of the particles and the wavelength of the incident light turbidity is measured using Nephlometric turbidity meter by   Nephlometric method

Total suspended solids (TSS)
A well mixed sample is filtered through a weighed standard glass-fibre filter. The residue is retained on the filter and dried at between 103ºc-105ºc to a constant weight. The increase of weight on the filter represents the total suspended solids. If the suspended material clogs the filter and prolongs filtration, the difference between the total solids and the total dissolved solids represents the total suspended solids
Mg total suspended solids/L= [(A-B) × 1000]
                                                                           Sample vol, ML
Where:  A    is weight of filter +dried residue, mg and
               B     is weight of filter
PH s defined by Sorenson is –log [H+]; it’s the intensity factor of acidity which is one of the most important and frequently used tests in water chemistry. Practically every phase of water supply and wastewater treatment is PH dependent. Some of the reaction that which are PH dependent are acid-base neutralization, water softening, coagulation, precipitation, and disinfection and corrosion control. Alkalinity ph is measured using ph meter either by using ph meter rod or by electrical method whose principle method is measurements is the determination of the activity of the hydrogen ions by potentionmeris measurements using a standard hydrogen electrode and a reference electrode.
Ground water surveys
Undertaking groundwater exploration and investigation for boreholes dedicated to groundwater monitoring with       respect to -:
                                            I.             Site identification.
                                         II.            Drilling
                                       III.            Test pumping.
                                      IV.            Designing a monitoring network for carrying out ground water quantity analysis
                                         V.            Developing hydro geological maps.
during my attachment period I managed to participate in carrying out geophysical survey for a client who commissioned lake Victoria north catchment  area to carry the survey  on his farm near the eldoret Airport  in order  to establish  the feasibility  of drilling productive borehole intended  to supply  potable  water  for  the domestic and irrigation use.
The objective of the hydro geological and geophysical surveys were  to establish ground water availability  for exploitation through  drilled  borehole including assessment of depth to potential aquifers , potential yields and water quality aspects and in accomplishing of this ground water survey , the following task were carried out.
Data interpretation
Field investigation carried out in the project area to locate suitable site for drilling borehole included the following
Geomorphological  interpretation and hydro geological reconnaissance to establish overview impression of the area.
Excursion of geo- electrical measurements comprising the following
Horizontal electrical trenching using the ABEM terrameter SAS 100
Vertical electrical trenching using ABEM terrameter SAS 1000
 Vertical electrical sounding (VES)
Vertical electrical sounding  was carried out to probe the electrical properties and depth to sub-surface  layered formations  below the site  of measurement. When carrying out a resistivity sounding , electric current is led into the ground by  means  of two electrode and the potential field generated  by the current is measured .The separation between the electrode  is step- wise  increased (employing schumberger array), thus  causing the flow of current to penetrate  greater  depths The observed resistivity variations against depth. The  graph  can be interpreted with the aid  of a computer  and the actual resistivity layering  of the substrata is obtained . The depths and resistivity  values provide  information on the geological layering and thus the occurrence  of groundwater.
            Electrical resistivity imaging
Two arrays were executed a long the fence on the upper side  of the farm . the array length was 400 meters  and the electrode spacing was 10 meters and the pseudo section obtained after inversion with Res2Dinv software is shown below
Assessment of the WRUA tool
Water resource user association ( name given to the community or group which  is focused  on the  management  and conservation  of the water resources of a particular area , river  or aquifer. WRUA is formed  by water users and stakeholders who voluntarily associates  to achieve  the common objectives  of improving  water resources management . WRMA, NGOs, CBOs or any other party  might help to catalyze  the formation  of a WRUA by mobilizing the water users and organizing meetings to discuss water  resource  management  problems, potential solutions and options of WRUA formation. Schedule of activities at stake holders relation office
        I.            Community mobilization and  motivation
     II.            Carrying out SWOT analysis of WRUAs and any other Water and Environmental Committees including CBOs, SHGs and NGOs,
   III.            involving stakeholders in land and water resource
  IV.            Linking WRMA with community/CBO at grassroots level on all issues pertaining to water and its catchments.
     V.            Establishing and capacity building WRUAs.
  VI.            Providing socio-economic guidance to WRUAs.

Status of establishment of WRUAs
Water resources management is implemented at the local level in collaboration with the Water Resources Users Associations (WRUAs). The involvement of WRUAs is a concept that was formulated to ensure that water resources management is participatory. The role of the WRUAs in management of water resources is to ensure that water sharing is done in harmony without any conflict. Since the WRUAs are the immediate beneficiaries in their locality, they are also able to participate in corporate management of water resources so as to protect and monitor the water resources and in the process enhance quantity and quality of the resource. These activities are regulated by WRMA through a working arrangement with the WRUAs .The membership of a WRUA is drawn from among water resource users while paying attention to the different uses. This ensures representation is diverse and covers the different types of water use such as agriculture, livestock, domestic, industrial, energy, fishery among others depending on the dominant activities in the sub-catchment area. Another consideration in WRUA establishment is gender balance whereby 30% of women participation is taken into consideration, especially in management. In terms of coverage the area of operation of a WRUA is normally arbitrarily determined but influenced by the complexity of the issues. So far the practice has been to use an area of about 200 km2 or an area for a stretch of a river of about 10-20 km long (see Figure 3.6).
Fig 3.6 As an example, the spatial distribution of WRUAs established in Lake Victoria North catchment area has been presented in Figure 3.7. It is envisaged that all water courses as shown by the drainage network will eventually be covered by a WRUA once the potential number is realized. The same applies to the other five catchment areas in Kenya.

SCMP development and implementation
Implementation of water resources management on the ground is achieved through use of the SCMPs. These are developed in a participatory manner with the involvement of WRUAs, stakeholders and other in groups. The SCMPs are formulated in line with the Catchment Management Strategies (CMSs) and the National Water Resources Management Strategy (NWRMS), which make them to conform to the policy framework. With the support from WRMA, WRUAs progressively implement projects developed from SCMPs in accordance with the guidelines contained in the WRUA Development Cycle (WDC). The resources needed for this exercise are mobilized from the public and private sector as well as from donors.
3.2.3 WRUA funding
A number of avenues exist for funding projects prepared by WRUAs. One possible area where resources can be accessed is through the WRUA Development Cycle (WDC) which has been established by WRMA and implemented by the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF). The WSTF supports not only WRUA projects but also WRUA establishment and SCMP development. Another source of funding for WRUA projects is from development programmes targeting specific catchment areas  Examples are Western Kenya Community Driven Development (WKCDD) project in Lake Victoria North,.fig .. s

Data analysis
Data analysis involved already keyed in data in the database in order to come up with diverse analytical outputs which included run-off curves, hydrographs, frequency curves and rating curves. In order to successfully implement the named outputs, one should be well vast with AquaSys software. This software assists in analysis. AquaSys works well with time series data which can be used to generate hydrological models for bridge, weir and dyke construction hydrological models for bridge, weir and dyke construction. While  in the database office, I obtained some knowledge on the use of GIS using the ArcGIS software used for data analysis. The GIS software  currently being used by the  institution is for  Performing  drainage analysis on a terrain model using the geoprocessing tools (arc hydro tools). The utility of the Arc Hydro geoprocessing tools is demonstrated by building models allowing running workflows in batch mode. extraction of maps  for WRUAs and catchment  delineation.
The figure below showing a processed map of sosio  WRUA catchment.
 the database  has also global positioning system (GPS)  tools which is a satellite-based navigation system made  up of a network of 24 satellites  placed  into  orbit.GPS was originally intended  for  military applications, but in 1980s ,the government made  the  system available for the civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world , 24hours a day .

how it works
GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a more few satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map. A GPS must be locked on to the signal of at least three  satellite  to calculate a 2 D position( latitude  and longitude )  and track  movement , with four or more satellite in view , the receiver can determine  the user’s 3 D position(latitude , longitude  and altitude ). Once the user position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time. I was  trained on how to put the GPS into  use  and during field work I was given the mandate to use GPS to record  location coordinates(nothings and eastings) units , altitude tracking routes and calculating  distance. The table below shows grid reference recorded by a GPS for   maragoli hills springs.

Abstraction Point Name
Grid Reference
N                       E

Kegomoli Spring
Wazore Spring
Lwandanyi Spring
Wambudo Spring
Omollo Water Spring
Kerongo Spring

N- Nothings       E- Eastings

Water abstraction survey
Water abstraction survey is the survey carried out to identify water related challenges due to population pressure, deforestation, water pollution, inefficient irrigation practices, encroachment and drainage of wetlands, planting of high water demand trees (eucalyptus near water resources), soil erosion, human–wildlife conflicts and inadequate water resource information. These challenges though reflected across all high agricultural potential areas in Kenya are unique to maragoli Hills micro-catchment area where survey was to be carried out. The objectives of the survey were to:
        I.            Identify and assess all points of water abstraction
     II.            Link all water abstraction points with water  permits
   III.            Develop a GIS  map showing water abstraction across all the bodies within  the area
A consultant was  hired  from maseno university  to support  the water abstraction survey  and provide the technical staff  from WRMA , logistics and necessary equipments  plus any assessment forms , water abstraction survey , water quality forms, details  of elements to be sampled.

Data collected was focusing on the following aspects
1)      Name and nature  of abstractor
2)      Grid reference of abstraction point
3)      Use of the water (domestic, industrial, irrigation)
4)      Number of people, livestock or hectares of land served by supply.
5)      Infrastructure for supply system (method of diversion, storage, conveyance. Etc)
6)      Legal details(permit number and details , group registration number)
7)      Environmental condition around abstraction point.
Data collection forms   used are attached  to the TOR in appendix A. 
The river abstraction survey was conducted for a period over four weeks  as agreed  between  WRMA , WRUA and the Consultant and  number and compositions of the  field  teams after obtaining permit data from  WRMA   regional office .The field team teams were  equipped with the  following equipments  to competently  use them:
1)      A GPS
2)      Equipment for river gauging(current meter, tape measure, stop watch)
3)      Equipment for making flow estimates using bucket and stopwatch
4)      Digital camera.
The teams splitted carry out an inventory of the abstraction survey on maragoli hills including its tributaries and streams .during these survey we also carry out the following task
·         Walking a long the entire Maragoli hills  and identifying  points  of the water abstraction
·         Following the provided check list, making notes of physical aspects of the abstraction works, and making appropriate measurements.
·         Making flow measurements to provide  insight into amounts  of abstraction  by  the larger  abstraction systems and also  the available  flows at selected  reference  points.
·         Looking for and identifying a suitable respondent to provide additional information as outlined in the check list.
·         Taking photographs of the catchment destruction, pollution or other undesirable activities that may affect the quality of water.
River gauging

Abstraction estimate
From the field estimates, the consultant estimate actual abstraction and provide detailed calculation to support the abstraction estimates. Where he analyzes the abstraction data to show
·         Relationship between location and type  of abstractors
·         Relationship between type of abstractor and volume  of water abstracted
·         Geographical distribution of abstraction within the sub-catchment
Projects implementation
(Community driven development and flood mitigation project)
Water resource user association development cycle (WDC)
Community driven development  projects  is an initiative embraced to  promote  community  driven investments  in micro-projects  aimed  at increasing  incomes  of the target communities and  reduce  poverty .western Kenya  community driven development  and flood mitigation project(WKCDD& FMP)is an initiative  by government  of  Kenya , financed  by world bank  which  is promoting  community  driven  investments  in micro- projects aimed  at  increasing incomes  of the target  communities  and reduce poverty. The  community  driven development(CDD) component  is the first  of the three  projects  components  and comprises  two sub-components  prioritized investments  and capacity building at the community level and local level development  support  to be funded respectively.
The component  support community –prioritized  investments projects  to improve livelihoods  and build  demand  and capacity for local level development  at  the community  and district  levels . it seeks  to give community organization authority and control over  decisions and resources  that  affect  their lives This  means  giving  them direct responsibility  to manage  their own internal and external resources  in better ways and their  having  responsibility  for planning  and implementing investments  they  see as priorities . The component  activities  will build  upon capacity created during  projects implementation and  strengthen existing institution as well as  extended  to other  communities  in the same project  areas to achieve broad  coverage  and create new implementation capacities .
The component  will facilitate  a process by which community groups  organize and take action to achieve their  common goals , in the context  of an enabling  policy  environment  and with support from responsive  institution( e.g. local government ,national agencies  and private sector). The component will target  most vulnerable group within these  communities with specific  interventions, especially through the promotion  of community –based ‘safety nets’ a CDD manual is always developed  to provide  detailed guidelines  for such  interventions  and further  implementation arrangements.
Flood mitigation
The implementations of floods management intervention is described under the following three sub-components;
1)      Multi-purpose flood  management
2)      Flood plain management
3)      Flood early warning system.
The lower reaches of nzoia  river basin experience frequent  floods  that result  in the loss of  life  as well  as property .attempts to control  floods  through  the construction of dykes  in the  budalangi area have  not been successfully solved the problem, as  flood water  overtop the dykes  almost  annually  . The component  seeks  to manage  the floods  for the  benefit  of the affected communities  through harnessing  of the flood water s  for use in irrigation, hydropower generation and  recreation.
Flood management objectives
The broad objective of flood management within the project is to reduce the vulnerability of the community to adverse outcomes associated with recurrent flooding. The flooding emanating from major rivers in the western Kenya region will be addressed in the short – and improved flood plain management and the establishment of an early warning system.
Detailed planning and preparation for long term  multi-purpose  investments to provide  greater  protection against flooding will be undertaken.
The specific objectives are
1)      Preparation for the multi-purpose long-term flood management
2)      Enhanced  flood plain  management  in the budalangi plains
3)      Development and institutionalization of a proactive mechanism for a community –based flood early warning system.
4)      Implementation activities toward achieving flood management  objectives
5)      Participatory development of vision and strategy
6)      Preparation for the multi-purpose  long term flood management
7)      Enhanced flood  plain management  in the budalangi plains
8)      Development and institutionalization  of a proactive  mechanism for a community based flood early warning system
9)      Capacity building –training a awareness creation
10)  Institutional strengthening for IFM and sustainability.

Flood management strategy
Flood management strategy  within  the  project has  inter-related  groups  of activities that will be carried out with the aim  of building the capacity of local communities  to prepare , respond  and  manage floods . the intention  is to develop  the capacity of key institution to plan and implement  flood management  activities in western Kenya .In principle ,the latest  approach of integrated  flood management (IFM)Will be adopted  as much  as possible ,whose  main elements are;
·         Managing the water cycle whole
·         International land  and  water management
·         Adopting  a best mix  of  strategies
·         Ensuring a participatory  approach
·         Adopting integrated hazard management approaches.

Conclusion and recommendations
Kenya is one of the most scarce countries in the world ,Kenya has some 640m3/person per year  in renewable fresh water ,which may sound a lot , however when compared to the figure of 19679m3/per person  per year in is needed , the limited nature  of this  finite water resource is underlined .Kenya ‘s per capita water availability  is declining . The rising population and low investments in water resources storage results in a worsening situation year by year. Kenya’s ranked 26th out of the most water scare countries of the world (UNESCO water statistics). The demand for water resources has been on the increase due to increasing population, industrial and irrigation water needs among others. On the contrary the water resources availability has been declining mainly due to catchment destruction. The management of water resource has a number of challenges which need to be continuously addressed. Most of these challenges cut across several sectors of the economy. Such sectors therefore should be well coordinated and represented in the water resources management initiatives. Such initiatives to should ultimately lead to enhanced availability of good quality water to meet socio-economic demands and ecosystem needs. regarding stakeholder involvement  in water resources management, creation of conducive environment through WRUAs  and in total about 324 WRUAs  have been legally recognized  to participate  in management  of water resources addressing  water resource  management  issues  on the ground level holding equitable allocation of water  resources. This has resulted in reduction of conflicts over water sharing and coexistence among different water resource users.

Weakness in performance of WRMA
WRMA is the lead organization in the country to ensure availability and management of the water resource for the current and future needs of the country. However, it does not have all the data necessary to inform the status of water availability .because of inadequate information, the planning component of WRMA’s function is weak. The planning does not seem to have been placed in its appropriate priority and capacity for this is underdeveloped.
Understaffing has also viciously hampered the   performance of WRMA. A good example IS the water quality lab (among most other department), where only one laboratory technician    is employed. Indeed the amount of work that is expected to be handled in the lab is far much than one staff can handle. This is true across most other department in the region.
While the various bodies bringing  in the community  participation in water  management  have been formed (CAACs and  WRUAs ), modalities  for ensuring full benefit of WRMA  from these bodies are not  in place .
WRMA  does not  have any obligation to implement any advice  given by CAACs; i.e. the regional office is not accountable  to CAACs for the advice they give. While WRMA  plays a facilitation  role to establish WRUAs in the various catchment and rivers reaches once they are formed , they are formed , there is no mechanism for close interaction between  WRMA  and WRUAs  to ensure  WRUAs can function effectively especially in areas where  the use  of water  in not yet  commercialized .
WRMA has not branded itself at the grassroots level, compared to for example, NEMA.WRMA is not visible, its image is low, and hence its services are not seen. Hence  the low collection rate  of charges WRMA as a lead  body  in water resources  management  does not seem to enjoy the political will to take the leas  in spearheading  implementation of IRWM despite the recognition that there are many players in the area of water  resources.
Suggestion for improvement of WRMA
Financial self- sufficiency of operations
The current  gap between revenues and expenditure, given the apparent aims  of also financing some  obsolete and non- functioning infrastructure within WRMA has lead  to great financial  strains for WRMA.the budget within which the organization operates are very constrained  and thus limit  the full implementation of the aims  of WRMA . Overdependence on donor funding stifled financial growth.WRMA needs to make progress towards self-financing to realize the effective management of water resource in the country.
Building staff capacity
A glaring of inefficiency, incompetence and ignorance of staff was noticed during my attachment insufficient knowledge and out right dalliance in the execution of duties, as stipulated in work contracts was easily noticeable. Some of the staff had little to no knowledge of their roles, while others lacked the proper information technology skills to aid handling of assignments. Moreover, understaffing was a serious problem in most departments. More must be done to recruit able, motivated and well educated individuals  to execute duties.
Greater empowerment of CAAC members
CAACs should be availed more influence over allocation issues than is currently  in place. Currently ,WRMA does not give adequate weight to option expressed  by the CAACs and not facilitated them adequately , resulting  in the intention of the water Act 2002 not being fulfilled . CAACs should form the boards of the regional operational operations so as to have greater say  in the  management  of water resources.

Catchment  management  strategy , lake Victoria  north catchment(draft)
Kenya vision 2030
The national water resources management strategy (2007-2009)
The national water  services  strategy (2007-2015)
The water act 2002
Water resources management rules 2007
WMO 2004: strategy for flood management  for lake Victoria basin
Water resource  users association developments cycle(WDC)

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