This report has been developed with the view of detailing the activities carried out at the water resources management authority lake Victoria north , Kakamega regional office , during the months of may to July 2011. It details the background information on the inception of the organization, its vital role in the ministry of water and irrigation and appraisal of key institution that work in tandem with the authority.
Also included in this report is detailed write up of the actual work and experiences gained both at the office and during field work. further, a detailed description of the area of specialization and its relevance to the management of water resources in Kenya has been included . the data that has been used for the report covers the period up to July 2011. WRMA-LVN catchment area came into existence in 2005 after the decentralization of water resources management from the ministry to the new water institutions .The regional office of lake Victoria north catchment area (LVNCA) is found at Kakamega town with sub-regional offices in kitale , Eldoret and Siaya. The catchment area(LVNCA) extends in latitude from its southern border on the equator 00°00’ to about 01°15’ and in longitude from 34° to 35°30’ east .the whole of the catchment area lies over 1000m above sea level and covers an extent of 18378km2.
Since operationalization of WRMA in 2005, it has established the framework in relation to which the catchment management strategies are being developed , which supports the identification of priorities for investments . The CMSs are operationalised at the sub-catchment level by WRUAs who support the preparation of the sub-catchment management plans (SCMPs).
Regarding stakeholder involvement in water resource management, WRMA has created a conducive environment through WRUAs. In total , about 56 WRUAs has been legally recognized to participate in management of water resource within lake Victoria north catchment area , another 11 WRUAs are already operational but yet to acquire legal status . Through WRUAs , WRMA is able to address water resources management issues on the ground including equitable allocation of water resources ,this has resulted in relation of conflicts over water sharing and coexistence among different water
Concerning community driven resources user development projects, an initiative embraced to promote community driven investments in micro-projects aimed at increasing incomes of the targeted communities and reduce poverty . Western Kenya community driven development and flood mitigation projects(WKCDDFMP) is an initiative by Kenyan government funded by world bank which is promoting community driven investment in micro-projects .The other initiative is the flood mitigation and implementation of floods management intervention described under the following components . Multi-purpose flood management, flood plain management and flood early warning.
Many individuals have contributed to the fruition of my undergraduate studies, and in extension, the attachment component. To them I owe a dept of thanks for their support, moral or otherwise – in seeing me through. First and for most, I am deeply indebted to the WRMA staff for their tireless lesson to me, both in the field and office. my sincere gratitude is equally extednded to DR. kibe , WRUA co-ordinator and Carol Matere , stakeholder relations officer , whose advice and guidance have been timeless. The support received from ICT officer Mr. Vincent shiveka, data analyst Mr. Dennis masika project officer Mr. Isaac mutanyi and the entire staff is immensely appreciated.
I must also thank the current staff of the centre of disaster management and humanitarian assistance at Masinde Muliro University of science and technology, for their organized supervision and mentorship during the entire period of my studies. Special thanks to DR. China for his ideas and advice during the assessment.
Finally, sincere thanks are due to my family for their support, encouragement and perseverance during the entire length of my studies.
List of abbreviations.
AGWR Artificial Ground Water Recharge
ASAL Arid and Semi Arid Lands
ASR Aquifer Storage and Recovery
CAAC Catchment Area Advisory Committees
CBO Community Based Organizations
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CMO Catchment Management Officer
GIS Geographical Information System
GW Ground Water
I.C.T Information Computer Technology
IWRM Integrated Water Resource Management
KEWI Kenya Water Institute
KFS Kenya Forestry Services
LVN Lake Victoria North
LVNCA Lake Victoria North Catchment Area
MoA Ministry of Agriculture
MWI Ministry of Water and Irrigation
NWRMS National Water Resources Management Strategy
PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
IFM Integrated flood management
WRMA Water Resource Management Authority
WRUAS Water Resource Users Association
WSP Water Service Providers
WSTF Water Services Trust FUND
The water resource management authority (WRMA) is a state corporation established in july2005 under provision of the water act 2002 of the laws of Kenya.
The authority is a non-profit generating service oriented corporate body under the ministry of water and irrigation. It is charged with the responsibility of providing leadership in the management of water resources countrywide. It is also subject to state corporations Act which guides all state corporations In Kenya.
The operations of WRMA are carried out through six regional and 25 sub-regional offices set up at river basin level and supported by catchment area advisory committees (CAAC) and resource users association created by the water act 2002.
These regional offices are developed with regard to the six catchment areas, the delineation of the six catchment areas are in accordance with the national water resource management strategy (NRWMS) and section 14 of the water act 2002. The six catchment areas are:
· Lake Victoria North Catchment Area.
· Lake Victoria South Catchment Area.
· Rift Valley Catchment Area.
· Tana River catchment Area.
· Ewaso ng’iro North Catchment Area.
Water resource management authority is divided into various departments from the national to regional level.
The departments include both the hydrological and management sectors, which are as follows;
I. Water quality monitoring department
II. Ground water department
III. Surface water department
IV. The enforcement office
V. Pollution and conservation management office
VI. Monitoring and evaluation office
VII. The procurement office
VIII. The ICT and database management office.
IX. The accounts department
X. The stake holders’ relations department
THE OBJECTIVES OF LVNCA-WRMA
In order to attain sustainability, the authority has the following objectives;
· To ensure equitable allocation and regulation of water use
· Meet the economic and social development objectives through sustainable management of water resources including equitable allocation of resources.
· To regulate and control use of water resources.
· To implement solutions for reconciling water supply and demand.
· Classify the water resources within agreed management zones.
· Determine the measures necessary to achieve the resources quality objectives.
· To ensure that the reserve is met at all times
· Protect water resources from pollution and mitigate the negative impacts from effluent inflow.
· To integrate protection and conservation approach together with stakeholders.
· To effectively protect and conserve resources within the catchment.
· Establish and maintain monitoring network and water resource monitoring and information system.
· Provide reliable information for decision making in water resource management.
· Ensure that mechanism for monitoring and evaluation of CMS implementation is in place.
POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
The powers and functions of WRMA are as follows:
· To develop principles, guide lines and procedures for the allocation of water resources.
· Monitor and re asses the national water resources management strategy.
· To receive and determine application for permits for water use.
· To monitor and enforce conditions attached to permits for water use.
· To regulate and protect water resources quality from adverse impacts.
· The protection and management of water catchments.
· It helps the ministry of water and irrigation in the protection of water sheds with respect to quality and quantity.
· Helps in the determination of charges to be imposed for the use of water from any water resource.
· It helps in gathering and maintenance of water resources and from time to time publishes forecasts, projections and information on water resources.
· They liase with other bodes for better regulation and management of water resources. Thee includes the following institutions;
a) At the national level;
b) Water resource management authority (WRMA)
c) Water services trust fund (WSTF)
d) Water services regulatory board (WSRB)
e) Water appeals board
f) At the regional level and community level
g) Water resource users association (WRUA)
h) Water catchment area advisory committees ( CAAC)
i) Water services provider. (WSP)
j) Water services board (WSB)
Below is an illustration f the institutional frame work under the water under the water act 2002, showing the functions and broad roles of the various institutions.
REPORT ON ACTIVITIES COVERED
For the entire period of training at lake Victoria north catchment area, I was exposed to the opportunities of expanding my knowledge in the field of disaster management especially floods forecasting and mitigation , pollution control ,water resource management and water quality monitoring and analysis of data. And during the trio month’s period of training, I managed to acquire practical knowledge in the following areas;
· Water quality monitoring and analysis.
· Ground water survey.
· Data entries in the data base.
· Assessment of the WRUA performance
· Abstraction survey of water resources
· Use of ARC GIS software to run a model on drainage analysis
· Use of GPS tool kit to mark waypoints(GRID REFERENCES)
WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS AND MONITORING
On the inception of my training at LVNC-WRMA, I was attached to the laboratory section where I was acquainted with knowledge of the duties carried out ranging from how to test different parameters and analyze whether they fall in the required WHO standards to other duties assigned which was Classifying the water resources for the purpose of determining Resource Quality Objectives for each class of water resource, Analyzing and interpreting water quality data , evaluation of reports,Analysing data relating to water quality parameters and Standardizing analytical methods. Some of the parameters worked on are as follows:
The physical parameters;
Temperature reading is used in the calculation of various forms of alkalinity in studies of saturation and stability with respect to calcium carbonate, in the calculation of salinity and in general laboratory operations .Temperature is measured using a mercury thermometer to obtain data for process use or heat –transmition calculation.
Turbidity is caused by the presence in water of suspended and colloidal matter such as clay, silts, finely divided organic and inorganic matter, plankton and other microscopic organisms. Turbidly is an expression of the optical property that causes light to be scattered and absorbed rather than transmitted with no change in direction. This depends on a number of factors, such as the number, the size, shape, and refractive index of the particles and the wavelength of the incident light turbidity is measured using Nephlometric turbidity meter by Nephlometric method
Total suspended solids (TSS)
A well mixed sample is filtered through a weighed standard glass-fibre filter. The residue is retained on the filter and dried at between 103ºc-105ºc to a constant weight. The increase of weight on the filter represents the total suspended solids. If the suspended material clogs the filter and prolongs filtration, the difference between the total solids and the total dissolved solids represents the total suspended solids
Mg total suspended solids/L= [(A-B) × 1000]
Sample vol, ML
Where: A is weight of filter +dried residue, mg and
B is weight of filter
PH s defined by Sorenson is –log [H+]; it’s the intensity factor of acidity which is one of the most important and frequently used tests in water chemistry. Practically every phase of water supply and wastewater treatment is PH dependent. Some of the reaction that which are PH dependent are acid-base neutralization, water softening, coagulation, precipitation, and disinfection and corrosion control. Alkalinity ph is measured using ph meter either by using ph meter rod or by electrical method whose principle method is measurements is the determination of the activity of the hydrogen ions by potentionmeris measurements using a standard hydrogen electrode and a reference electrode.
Ground water surveys
Undertaking groundwater exploration and investigation for boreholes dedicated to groundwater monitoring with respect to -:
I. Site identification.
III. Test pumping.
IV. Designing a monitoring network for carrying out ground water quantity analysis
V. Developing hydro geological maps.
during my attachment period I managed to participate in carrying out geophysical survey for a client who commissioned lake Victoria north catchment area to carry the survey on his farm near the eldoret Airport in order to establish the feasibility of drilling productive borehole intended to supply potable water for the domestic and irrigation use.
The objective of the hydro geological and geophysical surveys were to establish ground water availability for exploitation through drilled borehole including assessment of depth to potential aquifers , potential yields and water quality aspects and in accomplishing of this ground water survey , the following task were carried out.
Field investigation carried out in the project area to locate suitable site for drilling borehole included the following
Geomorphological interpretation and hydro geological reconnaissance to establish overview impression of the area.
Excursion of geo- electrical measurements comprising the following
Horizontal electrical trenching using the ABEM terrameter SAS 100
Vertical electrical trenching using ABEM terrameter SAS 1000
Vertical electrical sounding (VES)
Vertical electrical sounding was carried out to probe the electrical properties and depth to sub-surface layered formations below the site of measurement. When carrying out a resistivity sounding , electric current is led into the ground by means of two electrode and the potential field generated by the current is measured .The separation between the electrode is step- wise increased (employing schumberger array), thus causing the flow of current to penetrate greater depths The observed resistivity variations against depth. The graph can be interpreted with the aid of a computer and the actual resistivity layering of the substrata is obtained . The depths and resistivity values provide information on the geological layering and thus the occurrence of groundwater.
Electrical resistivity imaging
Two arrays were executed a long the fence on the upper side of the farm . the array length was 400 meters and the electrode spacing was 10 meters and the pseudo section obtained after inversion with Res2Dinv software is shown below
Assessment of the WRUA tool
Water resource user association ( name given to the community or group which is focused on the management and conservation of the water resources of a particular area , river or aquifer. WRUA is formed by water users and stakeholders who voluntarily associates to achieve the common objectives of improving water resources management . WRMA, NGOs, CBOs or any other party might help to catalyze the formation of a WRUA by mobilizing the water users and organizing meetings to discuss water resource management problems, potential solutions and options of WRUA formation. Schedule of activities at stake holders relation office
I. Community mobilization and motivation
II. Carrying out SWOT analysis of WRUAs and any other Water and Environmental Committees including CBOs, SHGs and NGOs,
III. involving stakeholders in land and water resource
IV. Linking WRMA with community/CBO at grassroots level on all issues pertaining to water and its catchments.
V. Establishing and capacity building WRUAs.
VI. Providing socio-economic guidance to WRUAs.
Status of establishment of WRUAs
Water resources management is implemented at the local level in collaboration with the Water Resources Users Associations (WRUAs). The involvement of WRUAs is a concept that was formulated to ensure that water resources management is participatory. The role of the WRUAs in management of water resources is to ensure that water sharing is done in harmony without any conflict. Since the WRUAs are the immediate beneficiaries in their locality, they are also able to participate in corporate management of water resources so as to protect and monitor the water resources and in the process enhance quantity and quality of the resource. These activities are regulated by WRMA through a working arrangement with the WRUAs .The membership of a WRUA is drawn from among water resource users while paying attention to the different uses. This ensures representation is diverse and covers the different types of water use such as agriculture, livestock, domestic, industrial, energy, fishery among others depending on the dominant activities in the sub-catchment area. Another consideration in WRUA establishment is gender balance whereby 30% of women participation is taken into consideration, especially in management. In terms of coverage the area of operation of a WRUA is normally arbitrarily determined but influenced by the complexity of the issues. So far the practice has been to use an area of about 200 km2 or an area for a stretch of a river of about 10-20 km long (see Figure 3.6).
Fig 3.6 As an example, the spatial distribution of WRUAs established in Lake Victoria North catchment area has been presented in Figure 3.7. It is envisaged that all water courses as shown by the drainage network will eventually be covered by a WRUA once the potential number is realized. The same applies to the other five catchment areas in Kenya.
SCMP development and implementation
Implementation of water resources management on the ground is achieved through use of the SCMPs. These are developed in a participatory manner with the involvement of WRUAs, stakeholders and other in groups. The SCMPs are formulated in line with the Catchment Management Strategies (CMSs) and the National Water Resources Management Strategy (NWRMS), which make them to conform to the policy framework. With the support from WRMA, WRUAs progressively implement projects developed from SCMPs in accordance with the guidelines contained in the WRUA Development Cycle (WDC). The resources needed for this exercise are mobilized from the public and private sector as well as from donors.
3.2.3 WRUA funding
A number of avenues exist for funding projects prepared by WRUAs. One possible area where resources can be accessed is through the WRUA Development Cycle (WDC) which has been established by WRMA and implemented by the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF). The WSTF supports not only WRUA projects but also WRUA establishment and SCMP development. Another source of funding for WRUA projects is from development programmes targeting specific catchment areas Examples are Western Kenya Community Driven Development (WKCDD) project in Lake Victoria North,.fig .. s
Data analysis involved already keyed in data in the database in order to come up with diverse analytical outputs which included run-off curves, hydrographs, frequency curves and rating curves. In order to successfully implement the named outputs, one should be well vast with AquaSys software. This software assists in analysis. AquaSys works well with time series data which can be used to generate hydrological models for bridge, weir and dyke construction hydrological models for bridge, weir and dyke construction. While in the database office, I obtained some knowledge on the use of GIS using the ArcGIS software used for data analysis. The GIS software currently being used by the institution is for Performing drainage analysis on a terrain model using the geoprocessing tools (arc hydro tools). The utility of the Arc Hydro geoprocessing tools is demonstrated by building models allowing running workflows in batch mode. extraction of maps for WRUAs and catchment delineation.
The figure below showing a processed map of sosio WRUA catchment.
the database has also global positioning system (GPS) tools which is a satellite-based navigation system made up of a network of 24 satellites placed into orbit.GPS was originally intended for military applications, but in 1980s ,the government made the system available for the civilian use. GPS works in any weather conditions, anywhere in the world , 24hours a day .
how it works
GPS satellites circle the earth twice a day in a very precise orbit and transmit signal information to earth. GPS receivers take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user’s exact location. Essentially, the GPS receiver compares the time signal was transmitted by a satellite with the time it was received. The time difference tells the GPS receiver how far away the satellite is. Now, with distance measurements from a more few satellites, the receiver can determine the user’s position and display it on the unit’s electronic map. A GPS must be locked on to the signal of at least three satellite to calculate a 2 D position( latitude and longitude ) and track movement , with four or more satellite in view , the receiver can determine the user’s 3 D position(latitude , longitude and altitude ). Once the user position has been determined, the GPS unit can calculate other information, such as speed, bearing, track, trip distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset time. I was trained on how to put the GPS into use and during field work I was given the mandate to use GPS to record location coordinates(nothings and eastings) units , altitude tracking routes and calculating distance. The table below shows grid reference recorded by a GPS for maragoli hills springs.
Abstraction Point Name
Omollo Water Spring
N- Nothings E- Eastings
Water abstraction survey
Water abstraction survey is the survey carried out to identify water related challenges due to population pressure, deforestation, water pollution, inefficient irrigation practices, encroachment and drainage of wetlands, planting of high water demand trees (eucalyptus near water resources), soil erosion, human–wildlife conflicts and inadequate water resource information. These challenges though reflected across all high agricultural potential areas in Kenya are unique to maragoli Hills micro-catchment area where survey was to be carried out. The objectives of the survey were to:
I. Identify and assess all points of water abstraction
II. Link all water abstraction points with water permits
III. Develop a GIS map showing water abstraction across all the bodies within the area
A consultant was hired from maseno university to support the water abstraction survey and provide the technical staff from WRMA , logistics and necessary equipments plus any assessment forms , water abstraction survey , water quality forms, details of elements to be sampled.
Data collected was focusing on the following aspects
2) Grid reference of abstraction point
3) Use of the water (domestic, industrial, irrigation)
4) Number of people, livestock or hectares of land served by supply.
5) Infrastructure for supply system (method of diversion, storage, conveyance. Etc)
6) Legal details(permit number and details , group registration number)
7) Environmental condition around abstraction point.
Data collection forms used are attached to the TOR in appendix A.
The river abstraction survey was conducted for a period over four weeks as agreed between WRMA , WRUA and the Consultant and number and compositions of the field teams after obtaining permit data from WRMA regional office .The field team teams were equipped with the following equipments to competently use them:
1) A GPS
2) Equipment for river gauging(current meter, tape measure, stop watch)
3) Equipment for making flow estimates using bucket and stopwatch
4) Digital camera.
The teams splitted carry out an inventory of the abstraction survey on maragoli hills including its tributaries and streams .during these survey we also carry out the following task
· Walking a long the entire Maragoli hills and identifying points of the water abstraction
· Following the provided check list, making notes of physical aspects of the abstraction works, and making appropriate measurements.
· Making flow measurements to provide insight into amounts of abstraction by the larger abstraction systems and also the available flows at selected reference points.
· Looking for and identifying a suitable respondent to provide additional information as outlined in the check list.
· Taking photographs of the catchment destruction, pollution or other undesirable activities that may affect the quality of water.
From the field estimates, the consultant estimate actual abstraction and provide detailed calculation to support the abstraction estimates. Where he analyzes the abstraction data to show
· Relationship between location and type of abstractors
· Relationship between type of abstractor and volume of water abstracted
· Geographical distribution of abstraction within the sub-catchment
AREA OF SPECIALIZATION
(Community driven development and flood mitigation project)
Water resource user association development cycle (WDC)
Community driven development projects is an initiative embraced to promote community driven investments in micro-projects aimed at increasing incomes of the target communities and reduce poverty .western Kenya community driven development and flood mitigation project(WKCDD& FMP)is an initiative by government of Kenya , financed by world bank which is promoting community driven investments in micro- projects aimed at increasing incomes of the target communities and reduce poverty. The community driven development(CDD) component is the first of the three projects components and comprises two sub-components prioritized investments and capacity building at the community level and local level development support to be funded respectively.
The component support community –prioritized investments projects to improve livelihoods and build demand and capacity for local level development at the community and district levels . it seeks to give community organization authority and control over decisions and resources that affect their lives This means giving them direct responsibility to manage their own internal and external resources in better ways and their having responsibility for planning and implementing investments they see as priorities . The component activities will build upon capacity created during projects implementation and strengthen existing institution as well as extended to other communities in the same project areas to achieve broad coverage and create new implementation capacities .
The component will facilitate a process by which community groups organize and take action to achieve their common goals , in the context of an enabling policy environment and with support from responsive institution( e.g. local government ,national agencies and private sector). The component will target most vulnerable group within these communities with specific interventions, especially through the promotion of community –based ‘safety nets’ a CDD manual is always developed to provide detailed guidelines for such interventions and further implementation arrangements.
The implementations of floods management intervention is described under the following three sub-components;
1) Multi-purpose flood management
2) Flood plain management
3) Flood early warning system.
The lower reaches of nzoia river basin experience frequent floods that result in the loss of life as well as property .attempts to control floods through the construction of dykes in the budalangi area have not been successfully solved the problem, as flood water overtop the dykes almost annually . The component seeks to manage the floods for the benefit of the affected communities through harnessing of the flood water s for use in irrigation, hydropower generation and recreation.
Flood management objectives
The broad objective of flood management within the project is to reduce the vulnerability of the community to adverse outcomes associated with recurrent flooding. The flooding emanating from major rivers in the western Kenya region will be addressed in the short – and improved flood plain management and the establishment of an early warning system.
Detailed planning and preparation for long term multi-purpose investments to provide greater protection against flooding will be undertaken.
The specific objectives are
1) Preparation for the multi-purpose long-term flood management
2) Enhanced flood plain management in the budalangi plains
3) Development and institutionalization of a proactive mechanism for a community –based flood early warning system.
4) Implementation activities toward achieving flood management objectives
5) Participatory development of vision and strategy
6) Preparation for the multi-purpose long term flood management
7) Enhanced flood plain management in the budalangi plains
8) Development and institutionalization of a proactive mechanism for a community based flood early warning system
9) Capacity building –training a awareness creation
10) Institutional strengthening for IFM and sustainability.
Flood management strategy
Flood management strategy within the project has inter-related groups of activities that will be carried out with the aim of building the capacity of local communities to prepare , respond and manage floods . the intention is to develop the capacity of key institution to plan and implement flood management activities in western Kenya .In principle ,the latest approach of integrated flood management (IFM)Will be adopted as much as possible ,whose main elements are;
· Managing the water cycle whole
· International land and water management
· Adopting a best mix of strategies
· Ensuring a participatory approach
· Adopting integrated hazard management approaches.
Conclusion and recommendations
Kenya is one of the most scarce countries in the world ,Kenya has some 640m3/person per year in renewable fresh water ,which may sound a lot , however when compared to the figure of 19679m3/per person per year in is needed , the limited nature of this finite water resource is underlined .Kenya ‘s per capita water availability is declining . The rising population and low investments in water resources storage results in a worsening situation year by year. Kenya’s ranked 26th out of the most water scare countries of the world (UNESCO water statistics). The demand for water resources has been on the increase due to increasing population, industrial and irrigation water needs among others. On the contrary the water resources availability has been declining mainly due to catchment destruction. The management of water resource has a number of challenges which need to be continuously addressed. Most of these challenges cut across several sectors of the economy. Such sectors therefore should be well coordinated and represented in the water resources management initiatives. Such initiatives to should ultimately lead to enhanced availability of good quality water to meet socio-economic demands and ecosystem needs. regarding stakeholder involvement in water resources management, creation of conducive environment through WRUAs and in total about 324 WRUAs have been legally recognized to participate in management of water resources addressing water resource management issues on the ground level holding equitable allocation of water resources. This has resulted in reduction of conflicts over water sharing and coexistence among different water resource users.
Weakness in performance of WRMA
WRMA is the lead organization in the country to ensure availability and management of the water resource for the current and future needs of the country. However, it does not have all the data necessary to inform the status of water availability .because of inadequate information, the planning component of WRMA’s function is weak. The planning does not seem to have been placed in its appropriate priority and capacity for this is underdeveloped.
Understaffing has also viciously hampered the performance of WRMA. A good example IS the water quality lab (among most other department), where only one laboratory technician is employed. Indeed the amount of work that is expected to be handled in the lab is far much than one staff can handle. This is true across most other department in the region.
While the various bodies bringing in the community participation in water management have been formed (CAACs and WRUAs ), modalities for ensuring full benefit of WRMA from these bodies are not in place .
WRMA does not have any obligation to implement any advice given by CAACs; i.e. the regional office is not accountable to CAACs for the advice they give. While WRMA plays a facilitation role to establish WRUAs in the various catchment and rivers reaches once they are formed , they are formed , there is no mechanism for close interaction between WRMA and WRUAs to ensure WRUAs can function effectively especially in areas where the use of water in not yet commercialized .
WRMA has not branded itself at the grassroots level, compared to for example, NEMA.WRMA is not visible, its image is low, and hence its services are not seen. Hence the low collection rate of charges WRMA as a lead body in water resources management does not seem to enjoy the political will to take the leas in spearheading implementation of IRWM despite the recognition that there are many players in the area of water resources.
Suggestion for improvement of WRMA
Financial self- sufficiency of operations
The current gap between revenues and expenditure, given the apparent aims of also financing some obsolete and non- functioning infrastructure within WRMA has lead to great financial strains for WRMA.the budget within which the organization operates are very constrained and thus limit the full implementation of the aims of WRMA . Overdependence on donor funding stifled financial growth.WRMA needs to make progress towards self-financing to realize the effective management of water resource in the country.
Building staff capacity
A glaring of inefficiency, incompetence and ignorance of staff was noticed during my attachment insufficient knowledge and out right dalliance in the execution of duties, as stipulated in work contracts was easily noticeable. Some of the staff had little to no knowledge of their roles, while others lacked the proper information technology skills to aid handling of assignments. Moreover, understaffing was a serious problem in most departments. More must be done to recruit able, motivated and well educated individuals to execute duties.
Greater empowerment of CAAC members
CAACs should be availed more influence over allocation issues than is currently in place. Currently ,WRMA does not give adequate weight to option expressed by the CAACs and not facilitated them adequately , resulting in the intention of the water Act 2002 not being fulfilled . CAACs should form the boards of the regional operational operations so as to have greater say in the management of water resources.
Catchment management strategy , lake Victoria north catchment(draft)
Kenya vision 2030
The national water resources management strategy (2007-2009)
The national water services strategy (2007-2015)
The water act 2002
Water resources management rules 2007
WMO 2004: strategy for flood management for lake Victoria basin
Water resource users association developments cycle(WDC)